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Scholarly Sources

CRAAP Test

The CRAAP Test was developed by librarian Sarah Blakeslee. It's a list of questions to help you evaluate the information you find. Different criteria will be more or less important depending on your situation or need.

Currency

  • When was the information published or posted?
  • Has the information been revised or updated?
  • Does your topic require current information, or will older sources work as well?
  • Are the links functional?

Relevance

  • Does the information relate to your topic or answer your research question?
  • Who is the intended audience?
  • Is the information at an appropriate level (not too elementary or advanced for your needs)?
  • Have you looked at a variety of sources before determining this is the one you will use?
  • Would you be comfortable citing this source in your research paper?

Authority

  • Who is the author/publisher/source/sponsor?
  • What are the author's credentials or organizational affiliations?
  • Is the author qualified to write on the topic?
  • Is there contact information, such as publisher or email address?
  • Does the URL reveal anything about the author or source? (.com, .edu, .gov, .net, .org)

Accuracy

  • Where does the information come from?
  • Is the information supported by evidence?
  • Has the information been reviewed, edited, or refereed?
  • Can you verify any of the information in another source or from personal knowledge?
  • Does the language or tone seem unbiased and free of emotion?
  • Are there spelling, grammar or typographical errors?

Purpose

  • What is the purpose of the information? To inform, teach, sell, entertain, or persuade?
  • Do the authors/sponsors make their intentions or purpose clear?
  • Is the information fact, opinion or propaganda?
  • Does the point of view appear objective and impartial?
  • Are there political, ideological, cultural, religious, institutional or personal biases?

Pulled from Merriam Library, USC Chico, at https://library.csuchico.edu/help/source-or-information-good